Insights into the Simultaneous Sorption of Ciprofloxacin and Heavy Metals Using Functionalized Biochar
Biochar and chitosan are considered as green and cost-effective adsorbents for water purification; the combination of these two materials may lead to an improved adsorption capacity of the generated adsorbents. Most sorption studies have been focused on the ability to adsorb one contaminant or the same type of contaminants. Thus, this study aimed to produce chitosan-biochar beads (CH-BB) and test their efficiency in the simultaneous removal of a metal-complexing antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP), and three metal(loid)s (As, Cd and Pb). Modification of raw pig manure biochar resulted in an increase in its adsorption capacity, except for Pb. The highest increment was observed for As (almost 6-fold) and the lowest was observed for CIP (1.1-fold). The adsorbent was able to simultaneously remove all targeted contaminants, individually and in the mixture. The adsorption capacity of CH-BB followed the order: Pb > Cd > >As > CIP. When Pb and As were present in the same mixture, their removal efficiency increased from 0.13 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.05 mg/g for As and from 0.75 ± 0.08 to 0.85 ± 0.02 mg/g for Pb due to their co-precipitation. The CIP–metal complexation probably resulted in a reduced adsorption ability for inorganics due to the decreased concentration of free ions. The presence of metals and metalloids led to alterations in CIP’s mobility.
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