Appearance of ciprofloxacin/chlortetracycline-resistant bacteria in waters of Québec City in Canada
Most of the waterborne fecal pathogens belong to the family of Gram-negative bacteria. Hence, minimal inhibitory concentrations of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin antibiotics towards Gram-negative representative, Enterobacter aerogenes were estimated, which were 7 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. The combined antimicrobial effect of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin against E. aerogenes was also investigated to establish their potential interaction towards the pathogens present in water. Eventually, the water samples obtained from various drinking water treatment plants from Québec municipality were tested for the occurrence of chlortetracycline-, ciprofloxacin- and chlortetracycline/ciprofloxacin-resistant strains.
Waterborne fecal pathogens usually belong to Enterobacteriaceae family that cause gastrointestinal illnesses. Between 1974–2001, Shigella and Salmonella caused around 56% drinking water outbreaks in Canada . At the same time, the Campylobacter waterborne outbreak was ranged as a second causative agent (24 outbreaks), following Giardia (51 outbreaks) . These bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics. However, their frequent usage has resulted in their high concentration in various environmental compartments, which have led to selective pressure and the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria .
The goal of this study was to investigate the combined antimicrobial activity of two widely used antibiotics, chlortetracycline (CTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), towards Gram-negative representative bacteria — Enterobacter aerogenes. The objective of this work was to investigate the appearance of CTC-resistant, CIP-resistant and CIP-CTC-resistant strains in the water compartments from different areas of the Québec City. The presence of three pathogenic bacteria that were potential resistant-gained species, Campylobacter sp., Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. was investigated.
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